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This invention is about how to make a new generation of fuel cells with back-to-back monolithic design.

The monolithic cube, which is the building-unit of the fuel cells in this invention, consists of multiple layers of SIGF, anode, electrolyte, and cathode. Using rapid fabrication techniques, this monolithic cube can be made quickly through the following key processes:

1. selective sintering to make SIGF from cheap material;
2. followed by anode, electrolyte, and cathode printing or coating;
3. followed by selective sintering to add another SIGF layer,
4. repeat 1.- 3. until the final monolithic unit is made. .

The key benefits of this invention include:

1. Innovative, back-to-back, and monolithic design which is unique in the world.

2. Minimize the usage of noble and expensive material and therefor reduce the manufacturing cost of fuel cells dramatically.

3. Simplify the manufacturing process dramatically using rapid-fabrication.

4. Enable the mass-production

5. Fully automated manufacturing process.

6. Maximize the performance by making key layers very thin.

7. All types of fuel cells covered.

8. No more gas leakage between cells because of monolithic design.

9. And more...

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